Civil litigation cases involve a private party (eg., a corporation or individual person) who files a law suit and becomes the plaintiff. Civil cases often involve large companies and large amounts being pursued. In general a losing defendant in civil litigation only reimburses the plaintiff for losses caused by the defendant’s behaviour.

In a civil case under tort law, there is a possibility of punitive damages, if the defendant’s conduct is egregious and either (1) a malicious intent (i.e., a desire to harm), (2) gross negligence (i.e., conscious indifference), or (3) a willful disregard for the rights of others.

Civil matters may also include:

• Personal injury claims
• Product liability
• Contracts
• De facto relationships
• Defamation
• Discrimination
• Family Law
• Misleading and deceptive conduct
• Product liability
• Unfair dismissal

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